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The Citizenship Act 1955 is an Indian law that governs Indian citizenship. It was enacted by the Indian parliament and came into force on April 30, 1955. The act sets out the qualifications and requirements for Indian citizenship, as well as the ways in which citizenship may be acquired or lost.

Under the Citizenship Act 1955, a person can become an Indian citizen by birth, descent, registration, or naturalization. A person can also lose Indian citizenship if they voluntarily acquire citizenship of another country or if they renounce their Indian citizenship.

The act has been amended several times since its enactment, with the most recent amendment being made in 2019. This amendment introduced controversial changes that have been the subject of widespread debate and protests in India. 

These changes include the introduction of a new citizenship category for non-Muslim illegal immigrants from neighboring countries, such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and the exclusion of Muslim illegal immigrants from this category. The amendment has been criticized by many as being discriminatory and against the principles of secularism enshrined in the Indian constitution.

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